Publikationen

Hier finden Sie von Know-Center MitarbeiterInnen verfasste wissenschaftliche Publikationen

2019

di Sciascio Maria Cecilia, Strohmaier David, Errecalde Marcelo Luis, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Interactive Quality Analytics of User-generated Content: An Integrated Toolkit for the Case of Wikipedia

ACM, 2019

Journal
Digital libraries and services enable users to access large amounts of data on demand. Yet, quality assessment of information encountered on the Internet remains an elusive open issue. For example, Wikipedia, one of the most visited platforms on the Web, hosts thousands of user-generated articles and undergoes 12 million edits/contributions per month. User-generated content is undoubtedly one of the keys to its success but also a hindrance to good quality. Although Wikipedia has established guidelines for the “perfect article,” authors find it difficult to assert whether their contributions comply with them and reviewers cannot cope with the ever-growing amount of articles pending review. Great efforts have been invested in algorithmic methods for automatic classification of Wikipedia articles (as featured or non-featured) and for quality flaw detection. Instead, our contribution is an interactive tool that combines automatic classification methods and human interaction in a toolkit, whereby experts can experiment with new quality metrics and share them with authors that need to identify weaknesses to improve a particular article. A design study shows that experts are able to effectively create complex quality metrics in a visual analytics environment. In turn, a user study evidences that regular users can identify flaws, as well as high-quality content based on the inspection of automatic quality scores.
2019

di Sciascio Maria Cecilia, Brusilovsky Peter, Trattner Christoph, Veas Eduardo Enrique

A Roadmap to User-Controllable Social Exploratory Search

ACM, 2019

Journal
Information-seeking tasks with learning or investigative purposes are usually referred to as exploratory search. Exploratory search unfolds as a dynamic process where the user, amidst navigation, trial and error, and on-the-fly selections, gathers and organizes information (resources). A range of innovative interfaces with increased user control has been developed to support the exploratory search process. In this work, we present our attempt to increase the power of exploratory search interfaces by using ideas of social search—for instance, leveraging information left by past users of information systems. Social search technologies are highly popular today, especially for improving ranking. However, current approaches to social ranking do not allow users to decide to what extent social information should be taken into account for result ranking. This article presents an interface that integrates social search functionality into an exploratory search system in a user-controlled way that is consistent with the nature of exploratory search. The interface incorporates control features that allow the user to (i) express information needs by selecting keywords and (ii) to express preferences for incorporating social wisdom based on tag matching and user similarity. The interface promotes search transparency through color-coded stacked bars and rich tooltips. This work presents the full series of evaluations conducted to, first, assess the value of the social models in contexts independent to the user interface, in terms of objective and perceived accuracy. Then, in a study with the full-fledged system, we investigated system accuracy and subjective aspects with a structural model revealing that when users actively interacted with all of its control features, the hybrid system outperformed a baseline content-based–only tool and users were more satisfied.
2019

Jorge Guerra Torres, Carlos Catania, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Active learning approach to label network traffic datasets

Journal of Information Security and Applications, Elsevier, Elsevier, 2019

Journal
Modern Network Intrusion Detection systems depend on models trained with up-to-date labeled data. Yet, the process of labeling a network traffic dataset is specially expensive, since expert knowledge is required to perform the annotations. Visual analytics applications exist that claim to considerably reduce the labeling effort, but the expert still needs to ponder several factors before issuing a label. And, most often the effect of bad labels (noise) in the final model is not evaluated. The present article introduces a novel active learning strategy that learns to predict labels in (pseudo) real-time as the user performs the annotation. The system called RiskID, presents several innovations: i) a set of statistical methods summarize the information, which is illustrated in a visual analytics application, ii) that interfaces with the active learning strategy forbuilding a random forest model as the user issues annotations; iii) the (pseudo) real-time predictions of the model are fed back visually to scaffold the traffic annotation task. Finally, iv) an evaluation framework is introduced that represents a complete methodology for evaluating active learning solutions, including resilience against noise.
2019

Jorge Guerra Torres, Veas Eduardo Enrique, Carlos Catania

A Study on Labeling Network Hostile Behavior with Intelligent Interactive Tools

IEEE Symposium on Visualization for Cyber Security , IEEE, 2019

Konferenz
Labeling a real network dataset is specially expensive in computer security, as an expert has to ponder several factors before assigning each label. This paper describes an interactive intelligent system to support the task of identifying hostile behavior in network logs. The RiskID application uses visualizations to graphically encode features of network connections and promote visual comparison. In the background, two algorithms are used to actively organize connections and predict potential labels: a recommendation algorithm and a semi-supervised learning strategy. These algorithms together with interactive adaptions to the user interface constitute a behavior recommendation. A study is carried out to analyze how the algo-rithms for recommendation and prediction influence the workflow of labeling a dataset. The results of a study with 16 participants indicate that the behaviour recommendation significantly improves the quality of labels. Analyzing interaction patterns, we identify a more intuitive workflow used when behaviour recommendation isavailable.
2019

Luzhnica Granit, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Boosting Word Recognition for Vibrotactile Skin Reading

ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computing, 2019

Konferenz
Proficiency in any form of reading requires a considerable amount of practice. With exposure, people get better at recognising words, because they develop strategies that enable them to read faster. This paper describes a study investigating recognition of words encoded with a 6-channel vibrotactile display. We train 22 users to recognise ten letters of the English alphabet. Additionally, we repeatedly expose users to 12 words in the form of training and reinforcement testing.Then, we test participants on exposed and unexposed words to observe the effects of exposure to words. Our study shows that, with exposure to words, participants did significantly improve on recognition of exposed words. The findings suggest that such a word exposure technique could be used during the training of novice users in order to boost the word recognition of a particular dictionary of words.
2019

Remonda Adrian, Krebs Sarah, Luzhnica Granit, Kern Roman, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Formula RL: Deep Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Racing usingTelemetry Data

Workshop on Scaling-Up Reinforcement Learning (SURL) @ Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, 2019

Konferenz
This paper explores the use of reinforcement learning (RL) models for autonomous racing. In contrast to passenger cars, where safety is the top priority, a racing car aims to minimize the lap-time. We frame the problem as a reinforcement learning task witha multidimensional input consisting of the vehicle telemetry, and a continuous action space. To findout which RL methods better solve the problem and whether the obtained models generalize to drivingon unknown tracks, we put 10 variants of deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) to race in two experiments: i) studying how RL methods learn to drive a racing car and ii) studying how the learning scenario influences the capability of the models to generalize. Our studies show that models trained with RL are not only able to drive faster than the baseline open source handcrafted bots but also generalize to unknown tracks.
2019

Barreiros Carla, Pammer-Schindler Viktoria, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Planting the Seed of Positive Human-IoT Interaction

International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, Taylor and Francis, 2019

Journal
We present a visual interface for communicating the internal state of a coffee machine via a tree metaphor. Nature-inspired representations have a positive impact on human well-being. We also hypothesize that representing the coffee machine asa tree stimulates emotional connection to it, which leads to better maintenance performance.The first study assessed the understandability of the tree representation, comparing it with icon-based and chart-based representations. An online survey with 25 participants indicated no significant mean error difference between representations.A two-week field study assessed the maintenance performance of 12 participants, comparing the tree representation with the icon-based representation. Based on 240 interactions with the coffee machine, we concluded that participants understood themachine states significantly better in the tree representation. Their comments and behavior indicated that the tree representation encouraged an emotional engagement with the machine. Moreover, the participants performed significantly more optional maintenance tasks with the tree representation.
2019

Luzhnica Granit, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Background Perception and Comprehension of Symbols Conveyed through Vibrotactile Wearable Displays

ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces , Los Angelos, 2019

Konferenz
2019

Luzhnica Granit, Veas Eduardo Enrique

Optimising the Encoding for Vibrotactile Skin Reading

ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2019

Konferenz
This paper proposes methods of optimising alphabet encoding for skin reading in order to avoid perception errors. First, a user study with 16 participants using two body locations serves to identify issues in recognition of both individual letters and words. To avoid such issues, a two-step optimisation method of the symbol encoding is proposed and validated in a second user study with eight participants using the optimised encoding with a seven vibromotor wearable layout on the back of the hand. The results show significant improvements in the recognition accuracy of letters (97%) and words (97%) when compared to the non-optimised encoding.
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