Hier finden Sie von Know-Center MitarbeiterInnen verfasste wissenschaftliche Publikationen


Dennerlein Sebastian, Moskaliuk Johannes , Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara

Tracing knowledge co-evolution in a realistic course setting: A wiki-based field experiment

Computers & Education, Pergamon, 2013

The co-evolution model of collaborative knowledge building by Cress & Kimmerle (2008)assumes that cognitive and social processes interact when users build knowledge with shareddigital artifacts. While these assumptions have been tested in various lab experiments, a testunder natural field conditions in educational settings has not been conducted. Here, wepresent a field experiment where we triggered knowledge co-evolution in an accommodationand an assimilation condition, and measured effects on student knowledge building outsidethe laboratory in the context of two university courses. Therefore, 48 students receiveddifferent kinds of prompts that triggered external accommodation and assimilation whilewriting a wiki text. Knowledge building was measured with a content analysis of the students‟texts and comments (externalization), and with concept maps and association tests(internalization). The findings reveal that (a) different modes of externalization(accommodation and assimilation) could be triggered with prompts, (b) across bothconditions, this externalization co-occurred with internalization (student learning), and (c)there is some evidence that external assimilation and accommodation had differential effectson internal assimilation and accommodation. Thus, the field experiment supports theassumptions of the co-evolution model in a realistic course setting. On a more general note,the study provides an example of how wikis can be used successfully for collaborativeknowledge building within educational contexts.

Kump Barbara, Seifer Christin, Beham Günter, Lindstaedt Stefanie , Ley Tobias

Seeing What the System Thinks You Know - Visualizing Evidence in an Open Learner Model

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, ACM, Canada, 2012

User knowledge levels in adaptive learning systems can be assessed based on user interactions that are interpreted as Knowledge Indicating Events (KIE). Such an approach makes complex inferences that may be hard to understand for users, and that are not necessarily accurate. We present MyExperiences, an open learner model designed for showing the users the inferences about them, as well as the underlying data. MyExperiences is one of the first open learner models based on tree maps. It constitutes an example of how research into open learner models and information visualization can be combined in an innovative way.

Pammer-Schindler Viktoria, Kump Barbara, Lindstaedt Stefanie

Tag-based algorithms can predict human ratings of which objects a picture shows

Multimedia Tools and Applications, Springer US, 2012

Collaborative tagging platforms allow users to describe resources with freely chosen keywords, so called tags. The meaning of a tag as well as the precise relation between a tag and the tagged resource are left open for interpretation to the user. Although human users mostly have a fair chance at interpreting this relation, machines do not. In this paper we study the characteristics of the problem to identify descriptive tags, i.e. tags that relate to visible objects in a picture. We investigate the feasibility of using a tag-based algorithm, i.e. an algorithm that ignores actual picture content, to tackle the problem. Given the theoretical feasibility of a well-performing tag-based algorithm, which we show via an optimal algorithm, we describe the implementation and evaluation of a WordNet-based algorithm as proof-of-concept. These two investigations lead to the conclusion that even relatively simple and fast tag-based algorithms can yet predict human ratings of which objects a picture shows. Finally, we discuss the inherent difficulty both humans and machines have when deciding whether a tag is descriptive or not. Based on a qualitative analysis, we distinguish between definitional disagreement, difference in knowledge, disambiguation and difference in perception as reasons for disagreement between raters.

Lindstaedt Stefanie , Kump Barbara, Rath Andreas S.

Context-Aware Recommendation for Work-Integrated Learning

Context and Semantics for Knowledge Management. Technologies for Personal Productivity, Warren, P., Davies, J., Simperl, E., Springer, 2011

Within this chapter we first outline the important role learning plays within knowledge work and its impact on productivity. As a theoretical background we introduce the paradigm of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) which conceptualizes informal learning at the workplace and takes place tightly intertwined with the execution of work tasks. Based on a variety of in-depth knowledge work studies we identify key requirements for the design of work-integrated learning support. Our focus is on providing learning support during the execution of work tasks (instead of beforehand), within the work environment of the user (instead of within a separate learning system), and by repurposing content for learning which was not originally intended for learning (instead of relying on the expensive manual creation of learning material). In order to satisfy these requirements we developed a number of context-aware knowledge services. These services integrate semantic technologies with statistical approaches which perform well in the face of uncertainty. These hybrid knowledge services include the automatic detection of a user’s work task, the ‘inference’ of the user’s competencies based on her past activities, context-aware recommendation of content and colleagues, learning opportunities, etc. A summary of a 3 month in-depth summative workplace evaluation at three testbed sites concludes the chapter.

Kump Barbara, Knipfer Kristin, Pammer-Schindler Viktoria, Schmidt Andreas, Maier Ronald, Kunzmann Christine, Cress Ulrike, Lindstaedt Stefanie

The role of Reflection in Maturing Organizational Know-how

Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Learning Networks, Palermo, Italy, September 21, 2011, Reinhardt, W., Ullmann, T. D., Scott, P., Pammer, V., Conlan, O., Berlanga, A., 2011

The Knowledge Maturing Phase Model has been presented as a model aligning knowledge management and organizational learning. The core argument underlying the present paper is that maturing organizational knowhow requires individual and collaborative reflection at work. We present an explorative interview study that analyzes reflection at the workplace in four organizations in different European countries. Our qualitative findings suggest that reflection is not equally self-evident in different settings. A deeper analysis of the findings leads to the hypothesis that different levels of maturity of processes come along with different expectations towards the workers with regard to compliance and flexibility, and to different ways of how learning at work takes place. Furthermore, reflection in situations where the processes are in early maturing phases seems to lead to consolidation of best practice, while reflection in situations where processes are highly standardized may lead to a modification of these standard processes. Therefore, in order to support the maturing of organizational know-how by providing reflection support, one should take into account the degree of standardisation of the processes in the target group.

Beham Günter, Lindstaedt Stefanie , Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara, Seifert C.

MyExperiences: Visualizing Evidence in an Open Learner Model

Adjunct Proceedings of the 18th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personaization, Posters and Demonstrations, Bohnert, B., Quiroga, L. M., 2010

When inferring a user’s knowledge state from naturally occurringinteractions in adaptive learning systems, one has to makes complexassumptions that may be hard to understand for users. We suggestMyExperiences, an open learner model designed for these specificrequirements. MyExperiences is based on some of the key design principles ofinformation visualization to help users understand the complex information inthe learner model. It further allows users to edit their learner models in order toimprove the accuracy of the information represented there.

Lindstaedt Stefanie , Kump Barbara, Beham Günter, Pammer-Schindler Viktoria, Ley Tobias, de Hoog R., Dotan A.

Providing Varying Degrees of Guidance for Work-Integrated Learning

Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010, Wolpers, M., Kirschner, P. A., Scheffel, M., Lindstaedt, S. N., Dimitrova, V., Springer, 2010

We present a work-integrated learning (WIL) concept which aims atempowering employees to learn while performing their work tasks. Withinthree usage scenarios we introduce the APOSDLE environment whichembodies the WIL concept and helps knowledge workers move fluidly alongthe whole spectrum of WIL activities. By doing so, they are experiencingvarying degrees of learning guidance: from building awareness, over exposingknowledge structures and contextualizing cooperation, to triggering reflectionand systematic competence development. Four key APOSDLE components areresponsible for providing this variety of learning guidance. The challenge intheir design lies in offering learning guidance without being domain-specificand without relying on manually created learning content. Our three monthsummative workplace evaluation within three application organizationssuggests that learners prefer awarenss building functionalities and descriptivelearning guidance and reveals that they benefited from it.

Beham Günter, Kump Barbara, Lindstaedt Stefanie , Ley Tobias

Recommending Knowledgeable People in a Work-Integrated Learning System

1st Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2010), 2010

According to studies into learning at work, interpersonal help seeking is the most important strategy of how people acquireknowledge at their workplaces. Finding knowledgeable persons, however, can often be difficult for several reasons. Expertfinding systems can support the process of identifying knowledgeable colleagues thus facilitating communication andcollaboration within an organization. In order to provide the expert finding functionality, an underlying user model is needed thatrepresents the characteristics of each individual user. In our article we discuss requirements for user models for the workintegratedlearning (WIL) situation. Then, we present the APOSDLE People Recommender Service which is based on anunderlying domain model, and on the APOSDLE User Model. We describe the APOSDLE People Recommender Service on thebasis of the Intuitive Domain Model of expert finding systems, and explain how this service can support interpersonal helpseeking at workplaces.

Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara, Gerdenitsch C.

Scaffolding Self-directed Learning with Personalized Learning Goal Recommendations

Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization - UMAP 2010, Springer, 2010

Adaptive scaffolding has been proposed as an efficient means for supporting self-directed learning both in educational as well as in adaptive learning systems research. However, the effects of adaptation on self-directed learning and the differential contributions of different adaptation models have not been systematically examined. In this paper, we examine whether personalized scaffolding in the learning process improves learning. We conducted a controlled lab study in which 29 students had to solve several tasks and learn with the help of an adaptive learning system in a within-subjects control condition design. In the learning process, participants obtained recommendations for learning goals from the system in three conditions: fixed scaffolding where learning goals were generated from the domain model, personalized scaffolding where these recommendations were ranked according to the user model, and random suggestions of learning goals (control condition). Students in the two experimental conditions clearly outperformed students in the control condition and felt better supported by the system. Additionally, students who received personalized scaffolding selected fewer learning goals than participants from the other groups.

Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara, Albert D.

A Methodology for Eliciting, Modelling, and Evaluating Expert Knowledge for an Adaptive Work-integrated Learning System

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 2010


Beham Günter, Lindstaedt Stefanie , Kump Barbara, Resanovic D.

Non-invasive User Modeling for Recommending Knowledgeable Persons in Work-integrated Learning

Second Stellar Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009, Workshop for Context-aware recommendation for learning, STELLAR, 2009


Lindstaedt Stefanie , Beham Günter, Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara

Getting to Know Your User: Unobtrusive User Model Maintenance within Work-Integrated Learning Environments

Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, ECTEL 2009, Nice, France, September/October 2009 , Cress, U., Dimitrova, V., Specht, M., Springer, 2009

Work-integrated learning (WIL) poses unique challenges for usermodel design: on the one hand users’ knowledge levels need to be determinedbased on their work activities – testing is not a viable option; on the other handusers do interact with a multitude of different work applications – there is nocentral learning system. This contribution introduces a user model and correspondingservices (based on SOA) geared to enable unobtrusive adaptabilitywithin WIL environments. Our hybrid user model services interpret usage datain the context of enterprise models (semantic approaches) and utilize heuristics(scruffy approaches) in order to determine knowledge levels, identify subjectmatter experts, etc. We give an overview of different types of user model services(logging, production, inference, control), provide a reference implementationwithin the APOSDLE project, and discuss early evaluation results.

Lindstaedt Stefanie , Ghidini C., Kump Barbara, Mahbub N., Pammer-Schindler Viktoria, Rospocher M., Serafini L.

MoKi: The Enterprise Modelling Wiki

The Semantic Web: Research and Applications, 6th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2009, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 31-June 4, 2009, Proceedings, Aroyo, L., Traverso, P., Ciravegna, F., Cimiano, P., Heath, T., Hyvönen, E., Mizoguchi, R., Oren, E., Sabou, M. & Simperl, E. P. B., Springer, 2009

Enterprise modelling focuses on the construction of a structureddescription, the so-called enterprise model, which represents aspectsrelevant to the activity of an enterprise. Although it has becomeclearer recently that enterprise modelling is a collaborative activity, involvinga large number of people, most of the enterprise modelling toolsstill only support very limited degrees of collaboration. Within thiscontribution we describe a tool for enterprise modelling, called MoKi(MOdelling wiKI), which supports agile collaboration between all differentactors involved in the enterprise modelling activities. MoKi is basedon a Semantic Wiki and enables actors with different expertise to developan enterprise model not only using structural (formal) descriptions butalso adopting more informal and semi-formal descriptions of knowledge.

Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara, Ulbrich Armin, Scheir Peter, Lindstaedt Stefanie

A Competence-based Approach for Formalizing Learning Goals in Work-integrated Learning

Proceedings of the ED-Media 2008, Vienna, Austria, June 30-July 4, 2008,, Chesapeake, VA: AACE, 2008

The paper suggests a way to support work-integrated learning for knowledge workwhich poses a great challenge for current research and practice. We first present a WorkplaceLearning Context Model which has been derived by analyzing knowledge work and the knowledgesources used by knowledge workers. The model specifies an integrative view on knowledgeworkers’ work environment by connecting learning, work and knowledge spaces. We then focuson the part of the context which specifies learning goals and their interrelations to task and domainmodels. Our purpose is to support learning needs analysis which is based on a comparison of tasksperformed in the past to those tasks to be tackled in the future. A first implementation in theAPOSDLE project is presented including the models generated for five real world applications andthe software prototype. We close with an outlook on future work.

Lindstaedt Stefanie , , , Lokaiczyk R., Kump Barbara, Beham Günter, Pammer-Schindler Viktoria

Knowledge Services for Work-integrated Learning

Proceedings of the European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (ECTEL) 2008, Maastricht, The Netherlands, September 16-19, Springer, 2008

In order to support work-integrated learning scenarios task- andcompetency-aware knowledge services are needed. In this paper we introducethree key knowledge services of the APOSDLE system and illustrate how theyinteract. The context determination daemon observes user interactions andinfers the current work task of the user. The user profile service uses theidentified work tasks to determine the competences of the user. And finally, theassociative retrieval service utilizes both the current work task and the inferredcompetences to identify relevant (learning) content. All of these knowledgeservices improve through user feedback.

Ley Tobias, Ulbrich Armin, Lindstaedt Stefanie , Scheir Peter, Kump Barbara, Albert Dietrich

Modeling competencies for supporting work-integrated learning in knowledge work

Journal of knowledge management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest a way to support work-integrated learning forknowledge work, which poses a great challenge for current research and practice.Design/methodology/approach – The authors first suggest a workplace learning context model, whichhas been derived by analyzing knowledge work and the knowledge sources used by knowledgeworkers. The authors then focus on the part of the context that specifies competencies by applying thecompetence performance approach, a formal framework developed in cognitive psychology. From theformal framework, a methodology is then derived of how to model competence and performance in theworkplace. The methodology is tested in a case study for the learning domain of requirementsengineering.Findings – The Workplace Learning Context Model specifies an integrative view on knowledge workers’work environment by connecting learning, work and knowledge spaces. The competence performanceapproach suggests that human competencies be formalized with a strong connection to workplaceperformance (i.e. the tasks performed by the knowledge worker). As a result, competency diagnosisand competency gap analysis can be embedded into the normal working tasks and learninginterventions can be offered accordingly. The results of the case study indicate that experts weregenerally in moderate to high agreement when assigning competencies to tasks.Research limitations/implications – The model needs to be evaluated with regard to the learningoutcomes in order to test whether the learning interventions offered benefit the user. Also, the validityand efficiency of competency diagnosis need to be compared to other standard practices incompetency management.Practical implications – Use of competence performance structures within organizational settings hasthe potential to more closely relate the diagnosis of competency needs to actual work tasks, and toembed it into work processes.Originality/value – The paper connects the latest research in cognitive psychology and in thebehavioural sciences with a formal approach that makes it appropriate for integration intotechnology-enhanced learning environments.Keywords Competences, Learning, Workplace learning, Knowledge managementPaper type Research paper

Ley Tobias, Kump Barbara, Lindstaedt Stefanie , Albert D., Maiden N. A. M., Jones S.

Competence and Performance in Requirements Engineering: Bringing Learning to the Workplace

in: Tomadaki, E., Scott, P. (Eds.), Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing, EC-TEL 2006 Workshops Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, Milton Keynes: Open University., Milton Keynes: Open University., 2006

Challenges for learning in knowledge work are being discussed.These include the challenge to better support self-directed learning whileaddressing the organizational goals and constraints at the same time, andproviding guidance for learning. The use of competencies is introduced as away to deal with these challenges. Specifically, the competence performanceapproach offers ways to better leverage organizational context and to supportinformal learning interventions. A case study illustrates the application of thecompetence performance approach for the learning domain of requirementsengineering. We close with conclusions and an outlook on future work.
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